• Scientific

Scientific References

Breast milk components and infant formula creation are incredibly important to understand, so it’s no surprise that the research into this area is extensive. Below is just a short list of the references that have been drawn upon by Beta A2 Australia, during our endeavors to create a safe and healthy whole food for your baby.
  • Aagaard, K., Ma, J., Antony, K.M., Ganu, R., Petrosino, J., Versalovic, J 2014, The placenta harbors a unique microbiome. Science Translational Medicine 6:237,65.
  • Atul Singhal, Kathy Kennedy, J. Lanigan, Helen Clough, Wendy Jenkins, Alun Elias-Jones, Terrence Stephenson, Peter Dudek, Alan Lucas. Dietary Nucleotides and Early Growth in Formula-Fed Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial, , Pediatrics, October 2010, Vol 126 / Issue 4
  • Azad, M.B., Konya, T., Maughan, H., Guttman, D.S., Field, C.J., Chari, R.S., Sears, M.R., Becker, A.B., Scott, J.A., Kozyrskyj, A.L., on behalf of the CHILD Study Investigators 2013, Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months. CMAJ 85(5),385–394.
  • Briggs G, Freeman R, Yaffe. Omega3 Fatty Acids. Micromedex Reprotox. In Micromedex;2013 2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements in. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation.: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk.. 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011. 3. Dietitians Association of Australia-Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vegetarian Diets. November 2011 From http://daa.asn.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Omega-3-Fatty-Aci ds-and-Vegetarian-Diets.pdf
  • Cristina L. Sánchez, Javier Cubero, Javier Sánchez, Belén Chanclón, Montserrat Rivero, Ana B. Rodríguez, Car men Barringa. The possible role of human milk nucleotides as sleep inducers. Nutritional Neuroscience 2009 Vol 12 No 1
  • Comstock S. S., Li, M., Wang, M., Monaco, M. H., Kuhlenschmidt, T. B., Donovan, S.D. Dietary Human Milk Oligosaccharides but Not Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Increase Circulating Natural Killer Cell and Mesenteric Lymph Node Memory T Cell Populations in Noninfected and Rotavirus Infected Neonatal Piglets. J Nutr. 2017; May 10 doi: 10.3945/jn.116.243774. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Donovan, S., Comstock, S. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Influence Neonatal Mucosal and Systemic Immunity. Ann Nutr. Metab. 2016; 69 (suppl 2): 42-51.
  • Freeman, Daniela Barile, J. Bruce German, David A. Mills, Jennifer T. Smilowitz, Mark A. Underwood. Persistence of Supplemented Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001 in Breastfed Infants. mSphere, 2017; 2 (6): e00501-17 DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00501-17 from Probiotic gets a boost from breast milk, American Society for Microbiology, Dec 6, 2017. Sciencedaily.com
  • Foolad, N., Brezinski, E. A., Chase, E. P., and Armstrong, A. W. (2013) Effect of nutrient supplementation on atopic dermatitis in children: a systematic review of probiotics, prebiotics, formula, and fatty acids. JAMA dermatology 149, 350-355
  • Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, Saugstad OD, Drevon CA. Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003;111:39-44
  • Holscher, H. D., Czerkies, L. A., Cekola, P., Litov, R., Benbow, M., Santema, S., Alexander, D. D., Perez, V., Sun, S., Saavedra, J. M., and Tappenden, K. A. (2012) Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 enhances intestinal antibody response in formula-fed infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JPEN J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr. 36, 106S-117S.
  • Holscher, H. D., Czerkies, L. A., Cekola, P., Litov, R., Benbow, M., Santema, S., Alexander, D. D., Perez, V., Sun, S., Saavedra, J. M., and Tappenden, K. A. (2012) Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 enhances intestinal antibody response in formula-fed infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JPEN J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr. 36, 106S-117S.
  • Jeurink, P .V., van Bergenhenegouwen, J., Jiménez, E., Knippels, L.M.J., Fernández, L., Garssen, J., Knol, J., Rodríguez, J.M., Martín, R 2013, Human milk: a source of more life than we imagine. Beneficial Microbes 4(1),17–30.

  • Kerr ,C.A., Grise, D.M., Tran, C.D., Bauer, D.C., Li, D., Hendry, P., Hannan, G.N 2014, Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 1–15 DOI: 10.3109/1040841X.2013.837863.
  • Lo¨nnerdal, B. Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2014; 99(3):712S-7S.
  • Makrides M. Outcomes for mothers and their babies: do n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and seafoods make a difference?; JAMA 2008;108(10):1622-1626
  • Motherisk- Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy; May 2007. Available from www.motherisk.org/prof/updatesDetail.jsp?content_id=857
  • NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values- Macronutrient Balance –Fats-n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Available at http://www.nrv.gov.au/disease/macronutrient.htm. Accessed Dec 2013
  • Ninonuevo, M. R., Park, Y., Yin, H., Zhang, J., Ward, R. E., Clowers, B. H.,& Lebrilla, C. B. (2006). A strategy for annotating the human milk glycome. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(20), 7471-7480.
  • NSW Food Authority.pregnancy- Fish and mercury; updated Jan 2013. Available from www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/consumers/life-events-and-food/pre gnancy/fish-and-mercury-faqs/
  • Pannaraj, P., Li, F., Cerini, C., Bender, J., Yang, S., Rollie, A., Adisetiyo, H., Zabih, S., Lincez, P., Bittinger, K., Bailey, A., Bushman, F., Sleasman, J., Aldrovandi, G. Association Between Breast Milk Bacterial Communities and Establishment and Development of the Infant Gut Microbiome. JAMA Pediatrics. 2017; doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0378. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Savino, F., Cordisco, L., Tarasco, V., Palumeri, E., Calabrese, R., Oggero, R., Roos, S., and Matteuzzi, D. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2010; 126, e526-533
  • Simmer, K., Patole, S. K., and Rao, S. C. (2011) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, CD000376
  • Stam, J., Sauer, P. J., and Boehm, G. (2013) Can we define an infant’s need from the composition of human milk? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 98, 521S-528S
  • Steven A. Frese, Andra A. Hutton, Lindsey N. Contreras, Claire A. Shaw, Michelle C. Palumbo, Giorgio Casaburi, Gege Xu, Jasmine C. C. Davis, Carlito B. Lebrilla, Bethany M. Henrick, Samara L. Stewart, Rowan, “General Paediatric Nutrition and Dietetics” (2012)
  • Thomas, D. W., Greer, F. R., American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on, N., American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Gastroenterology, H., and Nutrition. (2010) Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics 126, 1217-1231
  • Timby, N., Domello¨f, E., Hernell, O., Lo¨nnerdal, B., Domello¨f, M. Neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth until 12 mo of age in infants fed a low-energy, low-protein formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes: a randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2014; 99: 860-868.
  • Timby, N., Hernell, O., Vaarala, O., Melin, M., Lo¨nnerdal, B., Domello¨f, M. Infections in Infants Fed Formula Supplemented With Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes. JPGN 2015;60: 384–389.
  • Tow, J 2014, Heal the mother, heal the baby: epigenetics, breastfeeding and the human microbiome. Breastfeeding Review 22(1),7–9.

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Beta A2 Australia aims to give reliable, accurate, and useful information on baby nutrition of a general nature and may amend the content on this site as required. To the extent permitted by law, Beta A2 Australia does not accept any liability or responsibility for claims, resulting from the misinterpretation of the content of this website, which is never intended to discontinue, alter or disregard professional medical advice and/or treatment. If you are ever unsure about your baby's development, concerned about the well-being of your child or your own health, please seek medical advice immediately.

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Please take a moment to read these important messages:

❯ The World Health Organisation recommends that breastfeeding is best for your baby.

❯ Good maternal nutrition is important while breastfeeding. If you are considering bottle-feeding, please seek professional advice as introducing partial or exclusive feeding may impact your supply of breast milk, making it difficult to reverse.

❯ It is sensible to consider the cost of infant formula when making this decision.

❯ When preparing your infant’s formula it is vital to follow our preparation and feeding instructions, as this will ensure your baby’s health.

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