Scientific Resources

Scientific References

Supplement creation is incredibly important to understand, so it’s no surprise that the research into this area is extensive. Below is just a short list of the references that have been drawn upon by Beta A2 Australia, during our endeavours to create safe and healthy whole food supplements for your family.

  • Aagaard, K., Ma, J., Antony, K.M., Ganu, R., Petrosino, J., Versalovic, J 2014, The placenta harbors a unique microbiome. Science Translational Medicine 6:237,65.
  • Atul Singhal, Kathy Kennedy, J. Lanigan, Helen Clough, Wendy Jenkins, Alun Elias-Jones, Terrence Stephenson, Peter Dudek, Alan Lucas. Dietary Nucleotides and Early Growth in Formula-Fed Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial, , Pediatrics, October 2010, Vol 126 / Issue 4
  • Azad, M.B., Konya, T., Maughan, H., Guttman, D.S., Field, C.J., Chari, R.S., Sears, M.R., Becker, A.B., Scott, J.A., Kozyrskyj, A.L., on behalf of the CHILD Study Investigators 2013, Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months. CMAJ 85(5),385–394.
  • Briggs G, Freeman R, Yaffe. Omega3 Fatty Acids. Micromedex Reprotox. In Micromedex;2013 2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements in. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation.: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk.. 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011. 3. Dietitians Association of Australia-Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vegetarian Diets. November 2011 From ds-and-Vegetarian-Diets.pdf
  • Cristina L. Sánchez, Javier Cubero, Javier Sánchez, Belén Chanclón, Montserrat Rivero, Ana B. Rodríguez, Car men Barringa. The possible role of human milk nucleotides as sleep inducers. Nutritional Neuroscience 2009 Vol 12 No 1
  • Comstock S. S., Li, M., Wang, M., Monaco, M. H., Kuhlenschmidt, T. B., Donovan, S.D. Dietary Human Milk Oligosaccharides but Not Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Increase Circulating Natural Killer Cell and Mesenteric Lymph Node Memory T Cell Populations in Noninfected and Rotavirus Infected Neonatal Piglets. J Nutr. 2017; May 10 doi: 10.3945/jn.116.243774. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Donovan, S., Comstock, S. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Influence Neonatal Mucosal and Systemic Immunity. Ann Nutr. Metab. 2016; 69 (suppl 2): 42-51.
  • Freeman, Daniela Barile, J. Bruce German, David A. Mills, Jennifer T. Smilowitz, Mark A. Underwood. Persistence of Supplemented Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis EVC001 in Breastfed Infants. mSphere, 2017; 2 (6): e00501-17 DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00501-17 from Probiotic gets a boost from breast milk, American Society for Microbiology, Dec 6, 2017.
  • Foolad, N., Brezinski, E. A., Chase, E. P., and Armstrong, A. W. (2013) Effect of nutrient supplementation on atopic dermatitis in children: a systematic review of probiotics, prebiotics, formula, and fatty acids. JAMA dermatology 149, 350-355
  • Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, Saugstad OD, Drevon CA. Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003;111:39-44
  • Holscher, H. D., Czerkies, L. A., Cekola, P., Litov, R., Benbow, M., Santema, S., Alexander, D. D., Perez, V., Sun, S., Saavedra, J. M., and Tappenden, K. A. (2012) Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 enhances intestinal antibody response in formula-fed infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JPEN J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr. 36, 106S-117S.
  • Holscher, H. D., Czerkies, L. A., Cekola, P., Litov, R., Benbow, M., Santema, S., Alexander, D. D., Perez, V., Sun, S., Saavedra, J. M., and Tappenden, K. A. (2012) Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 enhances intestinal antibody response in formula-fed infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JPEN J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr. 36, 106S-117S.
  • Jeurink, P .V., van Bergenhenegouwen, J., Jiménez, E., Knippels, L.M.J., Fernández, L., Garssen, J., Knol, J., Rodríguez, J.M., Martín, R 2013, Human milk: a source of more life than we imagine. Beneficial Microbes 4(1),17–30.
  • Kerr ,C.A., Grise, D.M., Tran, C.D., Bauer, D.C., Li, D., Hendry, P., Hannan, G.N 2014, Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 1–15 DOI: 10.3109/1040841X.2013.837863.
  • Lo¨nnerdal, B. Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2014; 99(3):712S-7S.
  • Makrides M. Outcomes for mothers and their babies: do n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and seafoods make a difference?; JAMA 2008;108(10):1622-1626
  • Motherisk- Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy; May 2007. Available from
  • NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values- Macronutrient Balance –Fats-n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Available at Accessed Dec 2013
  • Ninonuevo, M. R., Park, Y., Yin, H., Zhang, J., Ward, R. E., Clowers, B. H.,& Lebrilla, C. B. (2006). A strategy for annotating the human milk glycome. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(20), 7471-7480.
  • NSW Food Authority.pregnancy- Fish and mercury; updated Jan 2013. Available from gnancy/fish-and-mercury-faqs/
  • Pannaraj, P., Li, F., Cerini, C., Bender, J., Yang, S., Rollie, A., Adisetiyo, H., Zabih, S., Lincez, P., Bittinger, K., Bailey, A., Bushman, F., Sleasman, J., Aldrovandi, G. Association Between Breast Milk Bacterial Communities and Establishment and Development of the Infant Gut Microbiome. JAMA Pediatrics. 2017; doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0378. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Savino, F., Cordisco, L., Tarasco, V., Palumeri, E., Calabrese, R., Oggero, R., Roos, S., and Matteuzzi, D. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2010; 126, e526-533
  • Simmer, K., Patole, S. K., and Rao, S. C. (2011) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, CD000376
  • Stam, J., Sauer, P. J., and Boehm, G. (2013) Can we define an infant’s need from the composition of human milk? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 98, 521S-528S
  • Steven A. Frese, Andra A. Hutton, Lindsey N. Contreras, Claire A. Shaw, Michelle C. Palumbo, Giorgio Casaburi, Gege Xu, Jasmine C. C. Davis, Carlito B. Lebrilla, Bethany M. Henrick, Samara L. Stewart, Rowan, “General Paediatric Nutrition and Dietetics” (2012)
  • Thomas, D. W., Greer, F. R., American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on, N., American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Gastroenterology, H., and Nutrition. (2010) Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics 126, 1217-1231
  • Timby, N., Domello¨f, E., Hernell, O., Lo¨nnerdal, B., Domello¨f, M. Neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth until 12 mo of age in infants fed a low-energy, low-protein formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes: a randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2014; 99: 860-868.
  • Timby, N., Hernell, O., Vaarala, O., Melin, M., Lo¨nnerdal, B., Domello¨f, M. Infections in Infants Fed Formula Supplemented With Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes. JPGN 2015;60: 384–389.
  • Tow, J 2014, Heal the mother, heal the baby: epigenetics, breastfeeding and the human microbiome. Breastfeeding Review 22(1),7–9.


  • ASCIA, Food Allergy,
  •  Eat for Health. Healthy Eating for children,
  • Osteoporosis Australia. Calcium,


  • Lizzie Streit, MS, RDN, LD. What Is Colostrum? Nutrition, Benefits, and Downsides
    February 27, 2019
  • Colostrum Australia. What is Colostrum?
  • F.O Uruakpaa, M.A. HIsmonda and E.N.T Akobundua1. Colostrum and its benefits: a review.
    Nutrition Research, Volume 22, Issue 6, June 2002, Pages 755-767


  • Alan Vega-Bautista, Mireya de la Garza, Julio César Carrero, Rafael Campos-Rodríguez, Marycarmen Godínez-Victoria and Maria Elisa Drago-Serrano. The Impact of Lactoferrin on the Growth of Intestinal Inhabitant Bacteria. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct; 20(19): 4707. Published online 2019 Sep 23. doi: 10.3390/ijms20194707
  • Andrew G. Plaut, Joseph St. Geme, Lactoferrin, in Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (Third Edition), 2013.
  • B W van der Strate, L Beljaars, G Molema, M C Harmsen and D K Meijer. Antiviral activities of lactoferrin. Antiviral Res. 2001 Dec;52(3):225-39. doi: 10.1016/s0166-3542(01)00195-4.
  • Douglas B. Kell, Eugene L. Heyden and Etheresia Pretorius. The Biology of Lactoferrin, an Iron-Binding Protein That Can Help Defend Against Viruses and Bacteria. Front Immunol. 2020; 11: 1221. Published online 2020 May 28. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01221
  • Francesca Berlutti, Fabrizio Pantanella, Tiziana Natalizi, Alessandra Frioni, Rosalba Paesano, Antonella Polimeni and Piera Valenti. Antiviral Properties of Lactoferrin—A Natural Immunity Molecule. Molecules. 2011 Aug; 16(8): 6992–7018. Published online 2011 Aug 16. doi: 10.3390/molecules16086992
  • Hirotsugu Oda, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi, Koji Yamauchi and Fumiaki Abe. Lactoferrin and bifidobacterial. Biometals . 2014 Oct;27(5):915-22. doi: 10.1007/s10534-014-9741-8. Epub 2014 Apr 27.
  • Jeffrey K. Actor, Shen-An Hwang and Marian L. Kruzel. Lactoferrin as a Natural Immune Modulator. Curr Pharm Des. 2009; 15(17): 1956–1973.
  • Kei-ichi Shimazaki and Kazuhiro Kawai. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 20 January 2017.
  • Kenya E. Fernandes and Dee A. Carter. The Antifungal Activity of Lactoferrin and Its Derived Peptides: Mechanisms of Action and Synergy with Drugs against Fungal Pathogens. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8: 2. Published online 2017 Jan 18. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00002
  • Maria Elisa Drago-Serrano, Rafael Campos-Rodríguez, Julio César Carrero and Mireya de la Garza. Lactoferrin: Balancing Ups and Downs of Inflammation Due to Microbial Infections. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Mar; 18(3): 501. Published online 2017 Mar 1. doi: 10.3390/ijms18030501
  • Masumi Okuda, Eikichi Miyashiro, Teruko Nakazawa, Koji Yamauchi, Reiko Koizumi, Susumu Teraguchi, Yoshitaka Tamura, Mina Booka, Norishige Yoshikawa, Yukihiko Adachi and Ichiro Imoto. Bovine lactoferrin is effective to suppress Helicobacter pylori colonization in the human stomach: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, Volume 11, Issue 6, 2005, Pages 265-269
  • NCBI – The innate and adaptive immune systems. July 30, 2020;
  • Satya Prakash, Laetitia Rodes, Michael Coussa-Charley, and Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau. Gut microbiota: next frontier in understanding human health and development of biotherapeutics. Biologics. 2011; 5: 71–86.
    Published online 2011 Jul 11. doi: 10.2147/BTT.S19099
  • Zhenyu Yang, Rulan Jiang, Qi Chen, Jie Wang, Yifan Duan, Xuehong Pang, Shan Jiang, Ye Bi, Huanmei Zhang, Bo Lönnerdal, Jianqiang Lai, and Shian Yin. Concentration of Lactoferrin in Human Milk and Its Variation during Lactation in Different Chinese Populations. Nutrients. 2018 Sep; 10(9): 1235. Published online 2018 Sep 5. doi: 10.3390/nu10091235

A2 Beta Casein Protein

  • De Noni RJ, FitzGerald HJT, Korhonen Y, Le Roux CT, Livesey I, Thorsdottir D, Tomé RW. Scientific report of EFSA prepared by a DATEX working group on the potential health impact of β-casomorphins and related peptides. EFSA Sci Rep 2009;231:1–107.
  • Guantario B, Giribaldi M, Devirgiliis C, Finamore A, Colombino E, Capucchio MT, Evangelista R, Motta V, Zinno P, Cirrincione S, Antoniazzi S, Cavallarin L, Roselli M. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Impact of Bovine Milk Containing Different Beta-Casein Profiles on Gut Health of Ageing Mice. Nutrients. 2020 Jul 19;12(7):2147. doi: 10.3390/nu12072147. PMID: 32707687 Free PMC article.
  • Ho S, Woodford K, Kukuljan S, Pal S. Comparative effects of A1 versus A2 beta-casein on gastrointestinal measures: a blinded randomised cross-over pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep;68(9):994-1000. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.127. Epub 2014 Jul 2. PMID: 24986816 Clinical Trial.
  • Beata Jarmołowska, Marta Bukało, Ewa Fiedorowicz, Anna Cieślińska, Natalia Karolina Kordulewska, Małgorzata Moszyńska, Aleksander Świątecki, and Elżbieta Kostyra. Role of Milk-Derived Opioid Peptides and Proline Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Nutrients. 2019 Jan; 11(1): 87. Published online 2019 Jan 4. doi: 10.3390/nu11010087
  • Jianqin S, Leiming X, Lu X, Yelland GW, Ni J, Clarke AJ. Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows’ milk. Nutr J. 2016 Apr 2;15:35. doi: 10.1186/s12937-016-0147-z. PMID: 27039383 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.
  • Kamiński S, Cieslińska A, Kostyra E. Polymorphism of bovine beta-casein and its potential effect on human health. J Appl Genet 2007;48:189–98. – PubMed
  • Laatikainen R, Salmenkari H, Sibakov T, Vapaatalo H, Turpeinen A. Randomised Controlled Trial: Partial Hydrolysation of Casein Protein in Milk Decreases Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Subjects with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Nutrients. 2020 Jul 18;12(7):2140. doi: 10.3390/nu12072140. PMID: 32708428
    Sebely Pal, Keith Woodford, Sonja Kukuljan and Suleen Ho. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose. Nutrients. 2015 Sep; 7(9): 7285–7297. Published online 2015 Aug 31. doi: 10.3390/nu7095339
  • Ramakrishnan M, Eaton TK, Sermet OM, Savaiano DA. Milk Containing A2 β-Casein ONLY, as a Single Meal, Causes Fewer Symptoms of Lactose Intolerance than Milk Containing A1 and A2 β-Caseins in Subjects with Lactose Maldigestion and Intolerance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial. Nutrients. 2020 Dec 17;12(12):3855. doi: 10.3390/nu12123855. PMID: 33348621 Free PMC article.
  • Simon Brooke-Taylor, Karen Dwyer, Keith Woodford and Natalya Kost. Systematic Review of the Gastrointestinal Effects of A1 Compared with A2 β-Casein. Adv Nutr. 2017 Sep; 8(5): 739–748. Published online 2017 Sep 7. doi: 10.3945/an.116.013953
  • Ul Haq MR, Kapila R, Sharma R, Saliganti V, Kapila S. Comparative evaluation of cow β-casein variants (A1/A2) consumption on Th2-mediated inflammatory response in mouse gut. Eur J Nutr. 2014 Jun;53(4):1039-49. doi: 10.1007/s00394-013-0606-7. Epub 2013 Oct 29. PMID: 24166511


  • FSANZ. Health and hygiene responsibilities of food handlers
  • FSANZ. Nutrition content claims and health claims
  • FSANZ Proposal P293 – Nutrition, Health & Related Claims Summary of submissions received in response to the Preliminary Final Assessment Report
  • World Health Organisation. How to Prepare Formula for Bottle-Feeding at Home

Palm Oil

  • Ask the experts, Palm Oil
  • World Wildlife Fund. 8 things to know about palm oil.